Scientific direction Development of key enabling technologies
Transfer of knowledge to industry

PhD : selection by topics

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Outline Runtime Assertion Checking

Département Ingénierie Logiciels et Systèmes (LIST)

Laboratoire pour la Sûreté du Logiciel


Artificial intelligence & Data intelligence (.pdf)

Our team develops Frama-C ( ), a code analysis platform for C programs which provides several analyzers as plug-ins. Frama-C itself is developed in OCaml . Frama-C allows the user to annotate C programs with formal specifications written in the ACSL specification language. Frama-C can then ensure that a C program satisfies its formal specification by relying on several techniques. E-ACSL is the Frama-C plug-in dedicated to runtime assertion checking. It converts a C program extended with formal annotations written in a subset of ACSL into a new C program which checks the validity of annotations at runtime: by default, the program execution stops whenever one annotation is violated, or behaves in the same way than the input program if all its annotations are valid. For doing so, E-ACSL performs an heavy implementation of the original source code to insert its own code that monitors the ACSL annotations. This technique is usually refered to as (online) inline runtime verification. However, depending on the context of application, this heavy instrumentation may lead to prohibitive memory and runtime overheads, as well as security concerns. The goal of the PhD consists in designing and implementing an outline runtime verification technique for E-ACSL , compatible with the existing inline technique. Outline runtime verification consists in placing the monitor in an external entity (e.g., another thread, or a remote server) for limiting the instrumentation to communication activities with the remote monitor. While this technique is well known and often applied to monitoring of temporal properties, it was never applied to runtime assertion checking, which raises several challenges regarding the data that need to be monitored.

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embedded elapsed-time attestation

Département Systèmes (LETI)

Laboratoire Sécurité des Objets et des Systèmes Physiques



Cyber security : hardware and sofware (.pdf)

The security objectives of connected objects are usually Confidentiality, Integrity and Authentication (CIA). However, guaranteeing these objectives does not prevent changing the order of events or the elapsed time between two events. To meet these new security needs and ensure the security of an history of data or transactions, connected objects must be able to provide proof of the time interval separating two events, or two blocks of structured data, within an asynchronous communication system. This thesis topic proposes to explore possible solutions allowing a constrained device or IoT to prove the elapsed time based on secure hardware components such as TEE (Trusted Execution Environment), SE (Secure Element) and TPM (Trusted Platform Module).

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Sensor Networks and Digital Twins for Mechatronic Systems Co-design

Département Systèmes (LETI)

Laboratoire Autonomie et Intégration des Capteurs



Factory of the future incl. robotics and non destructive testing (.pdf)

As part of the development of its R&D activities on sensor networks and digital twins, the Autonomy and Sensor Integration Laboratory (DSYS/SSCE/LAIC) of CEA-LETI in Grenoble, France, is offering a thesis on "Sensor Networks and Digital Twins for the Co-design of Mechatronic Systems". The LAIC laboratory is specialized in the design and development of innovative electronic systems, addressing physical and electronic issues of sensor interfaces, sensor integration, low power and wired or wireless communications, for various types of applications including industry 4.0, aeronautics, medical devices, or sports. The aim of the PhD thesis is to implement a sensor network combined with multi-physics simulation tools and Artificial Intelligence-based analysis tools to develop Digital Twins. One application could be smart orthoses and prostheses for the medicine of the future, to detect premature ageing of the devices, to characterize usefulness and comfort for users and so supervise the patient rehabilitation and post-rehabilitation phases. The digital twin will be a virtual replica of the real system in operation. It will process, in real time, information from both the network of sensors deployed on the system (stresses/strain, IMU, etc.) and from finite element simulation models. It will be used to evaluate the operating state of the system, and in particular its ageing state, but also to predict its future behavior. These developments will subsequently allow the optimization of the operation, lifespan and environmental impact of mechatronic systems (predictive maintenance, eco-design).

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Culture of microlagae on industrial exhaust fumes





Green and decarbonated energy incl. bioprocesses and waste valorization (.pdf)

Photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria have the advantage of being able to transform CO2 into a valuable biomass. They are potentially able to capture and reuse industrial CO2 emissions and therefore mitigate their environmental impact. This use of CO2 of industrial origin in a strategy of bioremediation of GHGs is an essential step so that the microalgae industry can move from a specialty industry (cosmetics, nutraceuticals) to a commodities industry (energy, plastic materials, etc. or even animal proteins). However, the use of CO2 from industrial sources by photosynthetic microorganisms presents biological, chemical and technical difficulties. Indeed, questions arise on the capacity of microalgae to tolerate these gases, on the effect of these gases on the pH and the composition of culture media and on the strategy to be implemented to optimize the bioremediation of these fumes by microalgae. These studies will be carried out using the ABIME experimental bench allowing the culture of microalgae on simulated industrial fumes. This thesis project aims to study the biological, chemical and technological obstacles involved in the culture of microalgae (and by extension of photosynthetic cyanobacteria) on industrial fumes, in order to better identify the levers of change of scale that can be envisaged for move towards a low-cost, large-quantity production model.

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Near-field focusing techniques in inhomogenous media at millimiter wave

Département Systèmes (LETI)

Laboratoire Antennes, Propagation, Couplage Inductif



Communication networks, IOT, radiofrequencies and antennas (.pdf)

In a huge number of applications such as wireless power transfer (WPT), microwave imaging, industrial control, etc., it is required to collimate, form or focus the electromagnetic radiation in a specific region of the space. Sometimes, this region could be located in the near-field region of the radiating element or surface. In this case, it is referred to as a near-field focused system. With the development of the future ?Beyond 5G? and 6G communication systems, the necessity to focus the radiating beam in the near-field region could be also required in the case of the reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS). These kind of devices, when composed of reconfigurable elements, can be deployed to manipulate the electromagnetic waves and dynamically control and adjust the properties of the propagation channel. Eventually, near-field focusing could be also applied to future medical imaging systems at microwaves. These devices require focusing and collimating the electromagnetic energy in the human body tissues in order to diagnose, monitor and/or treat specific pathologies. In this context, near-field focusing can be used to improve the resolution of the imaging system by optimizing the energy transfer/transmission. The first objective of this thesis is to develop specific numerical tools for the synthesis, design and optimization of near-field focused systems in non-homogeneous media. These techniques will be developed by considering the electromagnetic properties of the media. The synthesis of the aperture field will be done considering modal expansion of the field and the potential vectors theory. After this phase, the synthesis and optimization procedures will be used to design a near-field focused antenna system operating at millimeter and/or sub-THz frequencies (30 - 300 GHz). These antennas will be manufactured and characterized in near-field test ranges. Measurements will validate the developed models for flat radiating apertures in specific scenarios. The possibility to perform measurements in a real applicative context (e.g. cancer detection) will be also considered.

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