Scientific direction Development of key enabling technologies
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3D dose distribution measurements for electronic brachytherapy treatments using the INTRABEAM system

Département Métrologie Instrumentation et Information (LIST)

Laboratoire de Métrologie de la Dose



Electronic brachytherapy is a cancer treatment technique using low energy X-rays (50 keV) generated by miniaturized X-ray tubes positioned in contact with the tissues to be irradiated. In France, the most widespread system is INTRABEAM provided by Zeiss. A dozen French medical services are equipped and use it mainly to treat breast cancer. Despite the advantages of electronic brachytherapy, its use is currently limited by the fact that each system has its own calibration method in terms of absorbed dose to water, which is not, in most cases, traceable to a national metrology standard. It is therefore necessary to develop and implement a generic and robust calibration methodology, as well as suitable measurement procedures for the quality control and verification of the treatment planning systems for electronic brachytherapy treatments. The LNHB, which is the French metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation, is involved in the European metrology project 18NRM02 PRISM-eBT ?Primary standards and traceable measurement methods for X-ray emitting electronic brachytherapy devices? which aims at providing solutions in this direction. The proposed subject fits into the context of this project. The objective of the proposed work is to measure the distributions of absorbed dose in water in 3 dimensions around the INTRABEAM source equipped with its spherical applicator dedicated to breast cancer treatments. For this, dosimetric gels will be used. They consist in radiosensitive gels, which can be read either by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or by optical tomography.

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Design of an embedded vision system integrating a fast intelligent imager

Département Systèmes et Circuits Intégrés Numériques (LIST)

Laboratoire Intelligence Artificielle Embarquée



The goal of the postdoc is to evaluate the interest of smart imagers integrating processing in the focal plane in embedded vision systems for a localization function and to propose a complete embedded vision system integrating a smart imager and a host. The study will focus on ego-localization applications, to realize, for example, a 3D localization function. From an existing application chain, the post-doctoral fellow will be able to carry out an algorithmic study in order to optimize it to exploit the qualities of the intelligent imager. Then he will be able to propose a partitioning between smart imager and host system, according to performance criteria. An experiment using the RETINE smart imager as well as the IRIS host board could be conducted to validate the proposal.

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Post-doctoral position in AI safety and assurance at CEA LIST

Département Ingénierie Logiciels et Systèmes (LIST)

Labo.conception des systèmes embarqués et autonomes



The position is related to safety assessment and assurance of AI (Artificial Intelligence)-based systems that used machine-learning components during operation time for performing autonomy functions. Currently, for non-AI system, the safety is assessed prior to the system deployment and the safety assessment results are compiled into a safety case that remains valid through system life. For novel systems integrating AI components, particularly the self-learners systems, such engineering and assurance approach are not applicable as the system can exhibit new behavior in front of unknown situations during operation. The goal of the postdoc will be to define an engineering approach to perform accurate safety assessment of AI systems. A second objective is to define assurance case artefacts (claims, evidences, etc.) to obtain & preserve justified confidence in the safety of the system through its lifetime, particularly for AI system with operational learning. The approach will be implemented in an open-source framework that it will be evaluated on industry-relevant applications. The position holder will join a research and development team in a highly stimulating environment with unique opportunities to develop a strong technical and research portfolio. He will be required to collaborate with LSEA academic & industry partners, to contribute and manage national & EU projects, to prepare and submit scientific material for publication, to provide guidance to PhD students.

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Scalable digital architecture for Qubits control in Quantum computer

Département Architectures Conception et Logiciels Embarqués (LIST-LETI)

Laboratoire Intégration Silicium des Architectures Numériques



Scaling Quantum Processing Units (QPU) to hundreds of Qubits leads to profound changes in the Qubits matrix control: this control will be split between its cryogenic part and its room temperature counterpart outside the cryostat. Multiple constraints coming from the cryostat (thermal or mechanical constraints for example) or coming from Qubits properties (number of Qubits, topology, fidelity, etc?) can affect architectural choices. Examples of these choices include Qubits control (digital/analog), instruction set, measurement storage, operation parallelism or communication between the different accelerator parts for example. This postdoctoral research will focused on defining a mid- (100 to 1,000 Qubits) and long-term (more than 10,000 Qubits) architecture of Qubits control at room temperature by starting from existing QPU middlewares (IBM QISKIT for example) and by taking into account specific constraints of the QPU developed at CEA-Leti using solid-state Qubits.

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Machine learning technics and knowledge-based simulator combined for dynamic process state estimation

Département Métrologie Instrumentation et Information (LIST)

Laboratoire Science des Données et de la Décision



This project aims to estimate the real state of a dynamic process for liquid-liquid extraction through the real data record. Data of this kind are uncertain due to exogenous variables. They are not included inside the simulator PAREX+ dedicated to the dynamic process. So, the first part of the project is to collect data from simulator. By this way the operational domain should be well covered and the dynamic response recorded. Then, the project focuses to solve the inverse problem by using convolutionnal neural networks on times series. Maybe a data enrichment could be necessary to perfect zones and improve estimations. Finally, the CNN will be tested on real data and integrate the uncertainty inside its estimations. At the end, the model built needs to be used in operational conditions to help diagnosis and improve the real-time control to ensure that the dynamic observed is the one needed.

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Fast-scintillator-based device for on-line FLASH-beam dosimetry

Département Métrologie Instrumentation et Information (LIST)

Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques



New cancer treatment modalities aim to improve the dose delivered to the tumor while sparing healthy tissue as much as possible. Various approaches are being developed, including the temporal optimization of the dose delivered with very high dose rate irradiation (FLASH). In this particular case, recent studies have shown that FLASH irradiation with electrons was as effective as photon beam treatments for tumor destruction while being less harmful to healthy tissue. For these beams, the instantaneous doses are up to several orders of magnitude higher than those produced by conventional beams. Conventional active dosimeters saturate under irradiation conditions at very high dose rates per pulse, therefore on-line dosimetry of the beam is not possible. We propose to develop a dosimeter dedicated to the measurement of beams in FLASH radiotherapy based on an ultra-fast plastic scintillator coupled with a silicon photomultiplier sensor (SiPM). The novelty of the project lies both in the chemical composition of the plastic scintillator which will be chosen for its response time and its wavelength emission to have a response adapted to the impulse characteristics of the beam, and in the final sensor with the possibility of coupling the plastic scintillator to a miniaturized SiPM matrix. The final goal is to be able to access, with a reliable methodology, the dosimetry and in-line geometry of FLASH beams.

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